Silicone implant breast augmentation has been routinely performed since the 1960s. Emerging literature suggests the existence of a clinical syndrome, silicone implant incompatibility syndrome (SIIS) resulting from silicone implants. Autoimmune reactivity develops, with subsequent symptoms including myalgias, arthralgias, chronic fatigue, sleep disturbance and cognitive impairment. While the existence of a clinical entity is currently being established in the literature, there are currently no guidelines on management.
Literature review was conducted using Medline and PubMed databases with key terms searched for, prior to hand-searching and bibliographical review until February 2019. The relevant literature was reviewed to determine whether consensus exists on the most appropriate management strategy.
Forty-nine articles relevant to SIIS were identified with twenty-one of these specifically outlining treatment. Of these, only five provided data on larger cohorts, three provided conclusions from literature reviews, and the remainder were small case series or isolated case reports. Improvement in symptoms was obtained by medical management of their immune response, by explantation and by simply counselling on the condition itself.
A new clinical condition is being described that appears to suggest a link between silicone implant use and various symptoms in a cohort of patients. The subsequent treatment of SIIS is yet to be agreed upon. Further research is required to establish guidelines for diagnosis and ensure evidence-based treatment, and that patients and clinicians have a more refined understanding of the potential risks of silicone breast implant use.
Level of Evidence III